The formation of reading skills is the most difficult process, both for normal children and for children with various pathologies. The practice has shown that it is most effective to teach children to read from 5-7 years old. In this case, the main attention should be paid to the strong memorization of the graphic image of the letter.
Many parents strive to teach their children to read as early as possible. But is it worth the rush to learn? To answer this question, you need to carefully monitor how the intelligence of children at an early age develops.
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Up to 5 years old, a baby has a more developed right hemisphere of the brain. It is responsible for emotions, fantasies, and creativity. It is difficult for a child at this age to remember and recognize letters, numbers and other symbols. Therefore, psychologists and teachers do not recommend teaching children the alphabet under 5 years old. However, this does not mean that any books should be put aside until this age. Quite the opposite: it is better for parents to read fairy tales and stories as often as possible. If you show your child from an early age that reading is a fun process, the study of letters in the future will be much more enthusiastic.
After 5 years, the intelligence of children changes: they become more assiduous, attentive and focused. This is because the left hemisphere, which is responsible for analysis, logic and memorization, is making a big leap in development. That is why experts advise teaching children to read not earlier than 5-6 years.
Reading is a skill. Reading has technical characteristics: correctness, fluency, meaningfulness and expressiveness. Expressiveness can be achieved only at the last stage of learning to read when the child already reads correctly and fluently, and most importantly, he understands the meaning of what he reads (here we are not talking about prepared expressive reading, but about reading an unfamiliar text expressively, observing the intonation when reading punctuation marks).
Stages of teaching correct reading: first of all your kid should learn the alphabet with sounds. You can buy an audio guide or use phonics books. Divide sounds into two groups: vowels and consonants. Learn the vowels first.
After that, your kid can start reading merges. For this, there are various devices (abacus) with movable belts. It is best to type fusions with the same vowels on the computer yourself and explain to the child how to read fusions, for example, with the letter “a”: we read the first letter (the letter of a consonant) as in the alphabet and open our mouth to “a” (speech therapists use a different method of merging letters in syllables) and so on.
Reading merges is not enough. Fluency depends on the width of the reading field (how many characters the eyes see ahead). The game will help here: we seem to read the line from left to right, from the first row, then go to the second, but select (with a pencil, for example) and read only the merges with a given vowel letter: “va”, “ba”. By the way, this game helps children who read without desire.
Remember how you studied a foreign language at school. For example, the teacher gave us letter combinations, told us how they were read, and we practiced reading letter combinations. When teaching to read, you need to use the same technique. Type combinations with letters on the computer and practice reading them.
In addition to the listed stages, there are also certain conditions that must be observed when teaching reading: stand (small children perceive text poorly if their gaze is at an angle), large print, the contrast of font and sheet, correct lighting.