A summary is a short-winded exposition of the main ideas expressed in any source of information. The primary purpose of writing a summary is to present a general idea of any topic, problem, or issue raised in the source text to the reader, who is unfamiliar with the original.
For the presentation of the material, in summary, to be consistent and logical, one should use simple sentences, enumerations, generalizations, and introductory words.
A good summary should:
– be understandable for a person who has not read the source text;
– be approximately one-third of the volume of the original;
– have a clear structure (introduction, main body, conclusion).
A good summary should not:
– be a rewriting of the source text;
– include any quoted speech;
– provide your opinion, and there should be no personal pronouns (I, we);
– have a double meaning.
The skill to summarize the essence and transform thoughts into speech is vital for interaction and understanding of different processes, yourself, and other people. For more information on how to start a summary, check out wr1ter.com.
How to Start a Summary Helpful Tips
- Thoughtfully read the source text to get an idea of the problem raised, the topic, and the author’s attitude to what is discussed in the book or article.
- Read the text for a second time, highlighting the main ideas. You can read the original paragraph by paragraph, or if headings highlight larger semantic parts, you can read and analyze each semantic piece sequentially.
- Find a topical sentence (or sentences) in every paragraph. Usually, it is the first sentence. The topic sentence formulates the key-note of the section. The other sentences reveal or illustrate the main idea. You should also pay attention to the last sentence because it summarizes the content of the paragraph.
- Write down each paragraph’s main idea or semantic part of the text in one sentence. Use your own words; do not quote the author. It is crucial to adhere to this principle because if you use the source text’s wording, you run the risk of writing a very long text, violating the summary brevity principle.
- Analyze the facts and examples that reveal the paragraphs’ topic sentences; choose only the most important ones. Write them down using periphrasis.
You should use a slightly different approach if you are summarizing several texts or articles. Start by reading all texts or articles, highlighting topics or ideas common to all texts. Answer the following question for yourself: do the authors of the texts adhere to the same point of view or express different opinions on the same issue? Select a few facts to support the general idea or other ideas presented in the publications.
- Once you have written down all the theses, you can write your summary. Remember: your summary should start with the author’s first and last name (or each author’s). You should also give the title of the original text (or several texts). Only then should you write your summary.