Farming is an agricultural activity that involves producing farms and crops. There are different farms depending on the commodity being planted. These are regulated by external factors like weather, quality of soil and fertilisers used to aggravate the growth.
Enterprise farm management assists farmers and the entire agricultural community in diligently organizing data, yielding better results. It operates on a digital cloud improvising, organizing and collecting data. This is instrumental in making informed decisions.
The onset of farming unfolded in different parts of the world. Started with the Neolithic Revolution that began 12,000 years ago. Nomads indulged in hunting for the longest time which eventually transformed into farming.
Followed by active farming changes made by the British Agricultural Revolution in the 18th century, it meant acceleration in production aided by the shoot up in domestic help. This was used for supply.
The Green Revolution of the 20th century marked the revolution of yielding cereals, rice and dwarf wheat. It was aided with chemical fertilisers.
Farming in India, commenced around 9000 BCE, in the North-west. The middle ages witnessed a state of art ballooning. Indian crops were impacting economies of other parts of the world. Also, irrigation channels were witnessed.
FARMING PATTERN IN INDIA
The most widespread farming patterns used in India are:
1) Subsistence farming – This kind of farming is primarily for personal use of the family. Often, negligible with no surplus.
2) Organic farming – Also popularly known as integrated farming, it revolves around the principles of sustainability. This entails the prohibition of artificial chemicals to fasten the growth of plants.
3) Industrial farming – It can also be called industrial livestock production. This warrants a peculiar approach aiming at maximising animal husbandry at minimal costs.
4) Horticulture – Trades in garden crops (corn, cabbage, potato etc), general fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants. (used for decorative purposes.)
5) Ley farming – Growing of grass alternating it with crops as a measure for soil conservation.
6) Agroforestry – Type of farming that promotes trees and shrubs being grown among crops. This initiates natural ecosystems and is sustainable. It has benefits like increased biodiversity, income generation, soil health and so on.
These are just a few of the popularly known farming practices in India.
Agriculture comprises 58% livelihood in India. It is categorized as the second worldwide producer of agricultural produce. The GDP (Gross domestic product) contribution made is about 17-18%.
We are the top producers of several crops like rice, pulses, sugarcane and cotton. On a further note we are also the highest producers in milk and second highest producer of fruits and vegetables.
The agricultural rates have been stunted in the past few decades, resulting in lower incomes of farmers. This can be traced back to:
→Insufficient space of land holdings
→Dependence on monsoons
→Loss of soil fertility
→Failure to provide remunerative prices to farmers
→Uneven access to modern technology
These factors in culmination have led to the decline of growth made in this sector. Consequently it affects the food supply chain, cost of living, employment and poverty.
This has resulted in pushing farmers neck deep into losses and poverty. Most of the farmers have to sell their lands to keep up with the ongoing expenses and take loans on top of it. As a failed attempt to repay the loans, they end up committing suicides. To keep their families afloat, some of them are now working as daily-wage labourers.
REPERCUSSIONS OF COVID OUTBREAK
The data above is an inkling to the fact that India is already hanging by a thread in terms of Agriculture. From being a surplus producer we are now being stricken down to an importer of certain crops. But the incidence of Covid has had some unprecedented affects on our situation. The large scale migration of workers triggered some serious complications. There was a dearth of much-needed labour for harvest and post-harvest requirements. The bizarre change in weather led to early harvest of crops. Bulk wastage of crops that can be credited to restriction of state borders has also invited mass agitation.
Although the government has made several yojnyas (schemes) to help farmers and uplift our economy, there is still poor implementation. They need to avert the crisis before India reaches a point of no return.